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  • RAMBI - רמב''י  (29,254)
  • 2020-2024  (29,254)
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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    In:  Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period 55,1 (2024) 76-99
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2024
    Titel der Quelle: Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period
    Angaben zur Quelle: 55,1 (2024) 76-99
    Keywords: Temple of Jerusalem (Jerusalem, Israel) Equipment and supplies ; Bible. Criticism, interpretation, etc., Jewish ; Tabernacle ; Jewish law Biblical teaching ; Jewish art and symbolism ; Implements, utensils, etc. (Jewish law) ; Post-biblical literature History and criticism ; Rabbinical literature History and criticism
    Abstract: In discussing the dismantling and transport of the tabernacle and its furnishings, Numbers 4:20 prohibits any viewing of the “holy,” except by Aaron, the priest, and his sons. Philo of Alexandria, as well as several modern scholars, read this as a prohibition on any non-priestly viewing of the sacred, Jewish cultic vessels, including the menorah, the shewbread table and the incense altar. Accordingly, a dominant view in research holds that during the Second Temple period these cultic utensils were concealed from the sight of non-priests. However, this view partly overlooks and partly misinterprets our main source in that respect: Josephus indicates that the Jewish holy vessels were actually displayed to the Jewish crowd gathered in the temple court during the Second Temple period. This is supported by the images on certain Hasmonean coins as well as by later texts, such as P.Oxy. 840 and rabbinic literature.
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    In:  Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period 55,1 (2024) 76-99
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2024
    Titel der Quelle: Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period
    Angaben zur Quelle: 55,1 (2024) 76-99
    Keywords: Midrash rabbah. Language, style ; Hebrew language, Talmudic Foreign words and phrases ; Greek
    Abstract: This article is a discussion of two Greek loanwords found in the Rabbinic text Song of Songs Rabbah. It shows that these words are best identified and explained through a comparison with a Stoic theory of fire, described and refuted by Philo of Alexandria. That these words, both hapax legomena in Rabbinic literature, are used in the Midrash show that at least some rabbis were conversant in Greek scientific terminology—and perhaps specifically with a version of this Stoic dispute. The uses to which these terms were put show that the rabbis deployed their vast, specialized knowledge where it was most important to them: interpreting the scriptures.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2024
    Titel der Quelle: Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period
    Angaben zur Quelle: 55,1 (2024) 1-43
    Keywords: Pharisees History ; Post-biblical literature History and criticism ; Rabbinical literature History and criticism ; Judaism History ; Jewish law History ; Roman law History ; Civil law
    Abstract: In this article I argue that the rabbinic movement reinvented itself during the second century by expanding the boundaries of Jewish law to include all spheres of private law, and thereby claiming juristic expertise in these matters. A variety of sources from the Second Temple period indicate that Jewish law at this stage included primarily ritual laws, while private law was not considered unique to the Jewish way of life and was not treated by scholars of Torah until the second century CE. This far-reaching change resonates with other concurrent developments in provincial legal culture, primarily the emergence of the local nomikoi (legal experts) and legal profession during this period and the dissemination of legal knowledge in the Roman East. The provincial situation served to reshape the rabbinic movement in the guise of the local jurists, and ultimately to establish their political and social standing.
    Abstract: In recent years, a new generation of Talmud scholars rediscovered Roman law as a valuable comparative tool. In addition to localized comparisons, several broad syntheses have been offered by scholars regarding Roman law and rabbinic halakhic thinking. In his article in this issue, “The Rabbinic Movement from Pharisees to Provincial Jurists” (doi: 10.1163/15700631-bja10070), Yair Furstenberg offers to explain the rise of the field of civil law in later Tannaitic literature as part of the rise of the local jurist in the eastern provinces. I seize the opportunity of Furstenberg’s novel thesis to rethink recent trends of comparing Tannaitic halakhah and Roman law and their limitations.
    Abstract: Yair Furstenberg’s article in this issue, “The Rabbinic Movement from Pharisees to Provincial Jurists” (DOI: 10.1163/15700631-bja10070), ties what he sees as the changing boundaries of torah law at the hands of the Tannaim to changes in the legal landscape of the eastern provinces of the Roman empire in the second century. This brief essay is a response to the article, musing on its implications and raising questions for future research.
    Description / Table of Contents: Rosen-Zvi, Ishay. Rabbis as "nomikoi"?: Questioning a new paradigm: a response to Yair Furstenberg. Ibid. 44-56.
    Description / Table of Contents: Dohrmann, Natalie B. Roman civil jurisdiction, "Nezikin", and rabbinic professionalization in the second century: a response to Yair Furstenberg. Ibid. 57-64.
    Description / Table of Contents: Czajkowski, Kimberley . The need for rabbinic 'nomikoi": a response to Yair Furstenberg. Ibid. 65-75.
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  • 4
    Article
    Article
    In:  Lingua; International Review of General Linguistics 297 (2024) 1-31
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2024
    Titel der Quelle: Lingua; International Review of General Linguistics
    Angaben zur Quelle: 297 (2024) 1-31
    Keywords: Aramaic language Syllabication ; Aramaic language Texts Dialects
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  • 5
    Article
    Article
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    In:  אוקימתא; מחקרים בספרות התלמודית והרבנית י (תשפד) 185-161
    Language: Hebrew
    Year of publication: 2024
    Titel der Quelle: אוקימתא; מחקרים בספרות התלמודית והרבנית
    Angaben zur Quelle: י (תשפד) 185-161
    Keywords: Talmud Bavli. Commentaries ; Talmud Bavli Manuscripts ; Talmud Bavli Criticism, Redaction
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  • 6
    Article
    Article
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    In:  אוקימתא; מחקרים בספרות התלמודית והרבנית י (תשפד) 129-160
    Language: Hebrew
    Year of publication: 2024
    Titel der Quelle: אוקימתא; מחקרים בספרות התלמודית והרבנית
    Angaben zur Quelle: י (תשפד) 129-160
    Keywords: Sifra. Criticism, interpretation, etc. ; Sifra Criticism, interpretation, etc.
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  • 7
    Language: Hebrew
    Year of publication: 2024
    Titel der Quelle: אוקימתא; מחקרים בספרות התלמודית והרבנית
    Angaben zur Quelle: י (תשפד) 127-47
    Keywords: Talmud Bavli. Criticism, interpretation, etc. ; Talmud Bavli. Criticism, Textual ; Talmud Bavli Manuscripts
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  • 8
    Language: Hebrew
    Year of publication: 2024
    Titel der Quelle: אוקימתא; מחקרים בספרות התלמודית והרבנית
    Angaben zur Quelle: י (תשפד) 35-46
    Keywords: Hoffmann, David, ; Hoffmann, David, ; Responsa History and criticism 19th century ; Passover Customs and practices ; Kitniyyot (Jewish law)
    Note: With an English abstract.
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  • 9
    Language: Hebrew
    Year of publication: 2024
    Titel der Quelle: אוקימתא; מחקרים בספרות התלמודית והרבנית
    Angaben zur Quelle: י (תשפד) 1-18
    Keywords: Mishnah. Criticism, interpretation, etc. ; Bible. Criticism, interpretation, etc. ; Yom Kippur in rabbinical literature ; Sacrifice Judaism ; Sin Judaism
    Abstract: Mishnah Kippurim is clearly divided into two parts: chapters one to sevendiscuss the atonement rituals in the shrine, whereas the eighth chapterfocuses on the laws concerning the individual on the Day of Atonement -the obligations of physical affliction, the laws related to life endangermentand to the individual’s means of atonement.In the past, many scholars assumed that the difference between thefirst seven chapters of the tractate and the seventh chapter waschronological-historical: the first seven chapters are earlier mishnayot,from the time of the second Temple and describe the service in theMikdash, whereas the eighth chapter was composed after the destructionof the Temple, when the Tannaim sought alternative ways of atonement.In recent years, however, some scholars have questioned this division andshown that, in fact, chapters one to seven were composed after thedestruction of the temple, and even if earlier historical traditions areintegrated into these chapters, the discussions in the Mishnah and theirediting are the products of the post-destruction Tannaitic beit midrash. Insuch a case, the division between the two sections is conceptual, notchronological: the first section deals with Yom Kippur atonement by meansof sacrifices and the second part of the tractate deals with individualatonement in a situation when there are no sacrifices on Yom Kippur.Examination of Mishnah Kippurim 8, 8, however, raises a seriousdifficulty in that regard: the Mishnah then speaks of Yom Kippuratonement without sacrifices, why are the sin and guilt offeringsintroduced here? The central contention in this article is that the eighthchapter of Mishnah Kippurim introduces a unique concept stating that evenin the temple period, sacrifices did not atone for the individual as much as“the power of the day” itself. According to this concept, only individualacts of atonement will affect personal atonement and the sole task of theDay atonement sacrifices is to atone for the community
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  • 10
    Language: Hebrew
    Year of publication: 2024
    Titel der Quelle: אוקימתא; מחקרים בספרות התלמודית והרבנית
    Angaben zur Quelle: י (תשפד)
    Keywords: Judah ben Samuel, ; Judah ben Samuel, ; Jewish travelers History To 1500 ; Jews History 12th century ; Jewish pilgrims and pilgrimages History
    Abstract: Unlike many of his contemporaries, Rabbi Judah ben Shmuel the Hasid(D. 1217), the central figure among the medieval pietist group known asHasidei Askenaz, had a particularly negative attitude toward longdistance travel, including pilgrimage to the Land of Israel. This articlesets forth his worldview on leaving the local area, as clearly expressed inhis writings and especially in Sefer Hasidim, of which Rabbi Judah wasthe principal author. The article calls to reconsider the accepted researchview, that Rabbi Judah the Hasid's anti-messianic worldview was thereason for his rejection of immigration to the Land of Israel. Thisrejection also, and perhaps primarily, stemmed from a sensitivity to themany mental and physical shortcomings associated with a long journeyto the Land of Israel, and to the crucial role that Rabbi Judah the Hasidassigned to the sage and the local Hasidic community in the atonementprocess of his Hasidim, and on the backdrop of the historic events of histime and place.
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  • 11
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2024
    Titel der Quelle: Religions
    Angaben zur Quelle: 15,1 (2024) 1-16
    Keywords: Rosenstock-Huessy, Eugen, Criticism and interpretation ; Buber, Martin, Criticism and interpretation ; Emigration and immigration Philosophy
    Abstract: Martin Buber (1878–1965) and Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy (1888–1973) were influential theologians and intellectuals known for their heterodox theologies and for their visions of a society based on dialogue. Both experienced migration. Buber emigrated during his teens from Vienna to Galicia, then, after his marriage, from Vienna to Germany, and finally from Germany to Palestine in 1938. Rosenstock-Huessy, a Christian theologian of Jewish origin, fled Germany in the wake of the Nazi rise to power in 1933. Independently and in different contexts, these thinkers employed their theologies in the 1930s and 1940s, advocating for immigration against the prevailing ideas of nativism and developing an (embryonic) theory and praxis of dialogic integration. Both sought to replace the popular totalistic and intolerant melting-pot ideology. This essay explores Buber’s and Rosenstock-Huessy’s approaches to immigration and its reception, the influence of their immigration experiences, and the relation to their approaches to other aspects of their thought. It explores the nativist theological approaches they opposed and the anti-nativism that might have inspired them. Finally, this essay examines the novelty of their approaches; while their theological advocacy of immigration was unique only in their times, their dialogical approach to integration stands out, even with regard to the contemporary multicultural approach, due to its theological edge.
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  • 12
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2024
    Titel der Quelle: Religions
    Angaben zur Quelle: 15,1 (2024) 1-20
    Keywords: English drama History and criticism Middle English, 1100-1500 ; Jewish merchants Drama ; Christianity and other religions Judaism Middle Ages, 600-1500 ; History
    Abstract: This paper examines the depiction of Jewish and Christian merchants in the medieval English Host miracle play, the Croxton Play of the Sacrament. This play is a critical illustration of religious racialization, effectively demonstrating the perpetuation of anti-Jewish stereotypes and legitimizing violence. Positioned within a broader scholarly debate, particularly in relation to Augustine’s doctrine of Jewish witness, the play portrays Jews as allegorical figures that validate Christian theological constructs. This paper delves into the representation and linguistic depiction of Jewish characters in the play, emphasizing their systematic dehumanization and instrumentalization in Christian narratives. A significant focus is placed on the coerced conversion of Jewish characters, which forces them into the archetype of the “Wandering Jew”, thereby highlighting motifs of symbolic aggression and unending diaspora. This paper also confronts contemporary scholarly perspectives that view the play as challenging religious boundaries, positing that such interpretations overlook the ingrained racialization and marginalization of Jewish identity during the European Middle Ages. It argues that the play’s transient disruption of power dynamics ultimately reinforces prevailing social hierarchies, thereby solidifying deep-seated anti-Jewish sentiments.
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  • 13
    Article
    Article
    In:  סגולה; מגזין ישראלי להיסטוריה 163 (2024) 45-51
    Language: Hebrew
    Year of publication: 2024
    Titel der Quelle: סגולה; מגזין ישראלי להיסטוריה
    Angaben zur Quelle: 163 (2024) 45-51
    Keywords: Muslim converts from Judaism ; Jews Historiography Middle Ages, 500-1500 ; Islam Relations ; Judaism ; Judaism Relations ; Islam
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  • 14
    Article
    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 46-55
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 46-55
    Keywords: Jewish law Methodology ; Rabbinical courts ; Judaism and state
    Abstract: This chapter explores the strain of ambiguity that inheres to various facets of Jewish law and normative order. It undertakes first, to analyze, briefly, the tensions between truth and trust, justice and peace – as they manifest themselves in a number of legal texts. It then moves to consider the attitude taken toward non-Jewish courts and juridical processes in the “courts of the gentiles”. Finally, it delves into a number of meta-legal themes as these are relevant to explicating the laws of the Torah and so our proper understanding of God’s commandments.
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  • 15
    Article
    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 125-136
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 125-136
    Keywords: Jews History Middle Ages, 500-1500 ; Material culture Religious aspects ; Judaism ; Jews Books and reading ; Jewish clothing and dress ; Jews Homes and haunts
    Abstract: The chapter deals with three categories of material life: books, clothing and houses. All three took part in a long process of historical change. Paper books in the form of a codex generated a cultural and sociological revolution which enhanced literacy and created a reading society. Reading sharpened people’s ability to differentiate and observe, which resulted in a higher degree of sensitivity and self-awareness and generated a new code of dressing, according to which people ought to conceal the natural contour of their bodies as much as possible. Textiles became the major industry of these times with its tremendously variegated fabrics and colors. It was not only the human body which ought to be fully covered. The house too was mainly furnished by textiles: carpets, cushions and draperies with almost every piece of furniture, jars, stools, wall niches, mattresses and large trays, being “dressed” by some kind of textile. Textiles of all kinds replaced the wood furniture of antiquity and totally changed the concept of furnishing a house.
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  • 16
    Article
    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 179-192
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 179-192
    Keywords: Karaites
    Abstract: There are three sources of Karaite law and they are based on the central tenet “Search the Scripture well and do not rely upon my opinion.” Karaite literature spans over a thousand years and its interpretations evolved over time. These interpretations reflect significant differences from rabbinic Judaism that reflect on issues in Jewish ritual and practice.
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  • 17
    Article
    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 275-293
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 275-293
    Keywords: Jews Identity ; Jewish families Social conditions ; Jews Interviews
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  • 18
    Article
    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 327-334
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 327-334
    Keywords: Hair Religious aspects ; Judaism
    Abstract: Often overlooked as a mundane aspect of the body, hair is a helpful entry point into understanding the Jewish experience throughout history. This chapter takes a chronological lifetime approach, tracing Jewish hair practices from childhood through death. It also discusses the politicization of Jewish hair, addressing both the role of hair in the Holocaust as well as in anti-Semitic caricatures. Through this approach it becomes clear that Jewish hair is more than simply style; it represents an outgrowth of personhood and how Jewish bodies are treated both within and outside of the community.
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  • 19
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 371-384
    Keywords: Lévinas, Emmanuel ; Secular Jews Attitudes ; Kibbutzim Social life and customs ; Judaism Customs and practices
    Abstract: Jewish secular rituals were in the past, and still are in the present, set by the Kibbutzim in Israel, and by Jewish renewal organizations. They are seen by a few sociologists as a sign for the post-modern and post-secular features of Israeli society. As such, they are supposedly a withdrawal from a stubborn atheist rebellion against tradition. This chapter uses a theological perspective to present secular rituals in a different way. It examines Jewish secular funerals, Yom Kippur, Passover, and Shabbat ceremonies, as examples for rituals which manifest the main ideas of secularism. The examples will show how these rituals serve secular Jews in their critique of religious understandings of Jewish culture. The last part of the chapter suggests that the fact that God appears in these rituals does not make them less secular. It can be explained through a comparison of Jewish particularity with other religious constructions, and it can be understood through what I call a “secular theology”, inspired mainly by Emanuel Levinas and his differentiation between the ontological and the ethical.
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  • 20
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 427-435
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 427-435
    Keywords: Tefillah li-shlom ha-Medinah ; Judaism and state ; Independence Day (Israel)
    Abstract: In this chapter I analyze various forms of the Prayer for the Welfare of the State of Israel and examine who recites them, who does not, and the reasons for it. This is based on an understanding by differing groups both in Israel and in the diaspora concerning the establishment of the modern State of Israel and its theological import. Using this as background we will describe how each of these groups view Yom Ha’Atzmaut, Israel Independence Day, and celebrate it.
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  • 21
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 501-507
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 501-507
    Keywords: Yiddish language History ; Judaism History ; Language and culture
    Abstract: Yiddish language, literature, and culture often deal with Jewish ritual and practice. This is seen in the structure and vocabulary of the language itself and also through a variety of literary styles. This chapter discusses examples from Yiddish language, literature and culture and shows how they each refer to Jewish rituals and practices.
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  • 22
    Article
    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 540-557
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 540-557
    Keywords: Judaism Customs and practices ; History ; Christianity and other religions Judaism To 500 ; History
    Abstract: In the complex “parting of the ways” between the early Jesus movement and its Jewish roots, Christianity both preserved and abandoned Jewish rituals. The multi-faceted nature of such reception appears throughout early Christian literature, but this study particularly focuses upon the Book of Acts and the Apostolic Fathers. The essay examines the early Christian reception of prayer, temple worship, Sabbath observance, liturgy and Scripture reading, ritual washing, casting of lots, almsgiving and charity, burial, laying on of hands, kashrut, fasting, shaking off of dust, circumcision, vows, and head shaving. These specific investigations within Acts and the Apostolic Fathers amply reflect both the adoption of existing Jewish rituals and the adaptation and even rejection of previous Jewish traditions.
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  • 23
    Article
    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 3-11
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 3-11
    Keywords: Bible Criticism, interpretation, etc. ; Ritual in the Bible
    Abstract: Much of the Hebrew Bible is about ritual and practice. The Jews were told to follow very different rules and regulations from the other communities who lived around them. It is not at all clear what these rituals are for, although they sometimes seem just to be important as a mark of distinction between the people of Israel and the rest. This established something of a theme in the Bible of disobedience, an occasional return to compliance, and much discussion of the imperfections of humanity. The text provides us with intriguing ideas about why we do what we do, how far we should obey what we are told to do, and what the consequences of not performing adequately might be.
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  • 24
    Article
    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 257-274
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 257-274
    Keywords: Haggadah (Non-traditional) Criticism, interpretation, etc. ; Jews Social life and customs ; Social justice Religious aspects ; Judaism
    Abstract: Jewish civilization is rich in religious ritual. It is therefore not surprising that Jews who wish to engage the community on a variety of social justice issues have used Jewish ritual as a platform to convey and disseminate their message. Materials for the Passover Seder are especially plentiful because of the popularity of the ritual and the centrality of justice concerns to the text. This chapter analyzes seminal social justice Haggadot published in the United States over the last one hundred years. In addition, it outlines the history of Jewish social activist thought, surveys the main arguments put forth to illustrate the Jewish imperative to pursue social justice, and looks at the critique of these claims and of social justice infused Jewish ritual.
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  • 25
    Article
    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 314-326
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 314-326
    Keywords: Human body Religious aspects ; Judaism ; Modesty Religious aspects ; Judaism ; Judaism Customs and practices ; History ; Body image
    Abstract: Body image is studied in the context of culture and religion and it is explored in relationship to Jewish ritual and practice. Several similar studies have demonstrated this association for Jewish women, and also for other religions and cultures around the world. However, the scientific evidence pertaining to the possible mechanisms associated with such links is less clear. Still, when examining the possible effect of Jewish rituals and practices that help people to cope with body image concerns, faith and media exposure were found to have a potential mediating effect. With regard to modesty, although a highly relevant construct when studying both Jewish rituals and practices and body image, no evidence was found for such an association, though more research is clearly needed. These findings highlight the potential protective factor religion may play in the creation of body image satisfaction among Jewish women. Limitations of current research as well as implications and future research directions are discussed.
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  • 26
    Article
    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 361-370
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 361-370
    Keywords: Sabbath Social aspects ; Sabbath History
    Abstract: Shabbat is perhaps the most prominent boundary marker of the Jewish people today. Shabbat (also Shabbos or Sabbath) in its various forms in Hebrew means, “to rest” and “to cease working”. For roughly 3,000 years, the Jewish people have made fifty-two pilgrimages to Shabbat per year. That is, they have traveled throughout each week with the seventh day as their destination. They have made this journey with much preparation, anticipation, and respect of those who came before. Even today, in our increasingly secular society, a majority of Jews observe some form of Shabbat. In this chapter, we view various snapshots of Shabbat from its origins to the present. We accomplish this in three sections: (1) foundations of Shabbat, (2) theological and mystical expansions of Shabbat, and (3) Shabbat in lived religious experience.
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  • 27
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 414-426
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 414-426
    Keywords: Judaism Liturgy ; Jews Music ; History and criticism ; Synagogue music History and criticism
    Abstract: This chapter uses historical, phenomenological, and musico-theoretical lenses to demonstrate the centrality of music in the lived experience of Jewish ritual and practice. Following a historical sketch that outlines important musicians, texts, and turning points in the music of Jewish ritual, the chapter turns to an examination of the ways that musicians, particularly cantors, shape the experience of synagogue and home rituals. The chapter concludes with a focus on the nusakh of Cantor Adolph Katchko, examining how musical decisions made within the parameters of convention breathe life into the liturgy. This examination of music indicates the importance of understanding the experiential aspects of ritual and practice.
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  • 28
    Article
    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 463-471
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 463-471
    Keywords: Hebrew language History ; Hebrew language Religious aspects ; Judaism ; History ; Language and languages Religious aspects ; Judaism ; Jews Languages ; History
    Abstract: The use of Hebrew in liturgical and ritual contexts may be traced back to the earliest origins of the Jewish people. The various linguistic genres employed for aspects of worship in the prophetic period were expanded in the Second Temple period when there was competition from Aramaic and Greek and influences from the Hellenistic world. The liturgical language of the Talmudic rabbis differed from that of the Qumran texts and Biblical Hebrew and itself underwent changes in the Geonic era, especially in the light of the powerful emergence of the novel register represented by the piyyuṭim. There was considerable controversy in the Middle Ages about whether the language of prayer should follow the biblical precedent or that of the rabbis, and a host of innovative language entered by way of the mystical dimension. The concern of many Jewish Hebraists in the modern world was that Jews should use beautiful and pure language for their worship and omit anything irrational or indecorous. When composing their Jewish prayer books, the various modern religious movements responded in different ways to the linguistic challenge but their responses altered with the events of the Holocaust and the establishment of the State of Israel.
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  • 29
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 526-539
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 526-539
    Keywords: Jewish ethics ; Disabilities in rabbinical literature ; Disabilities Religious aspects ; Judaism ; Social integration ; Jewish communities
    Abstract: The chapter on individuals with disabilities and their families explores the hallmarks, realities, and possibilities of a Jewish inclusive ethos and practice. Included is an examination of its roots in biblical and rabbinic text and its form and function in contemporary Jewish life. Also addressed is the research on best practices of inclusive faith communities, barriers to full participation in Jewish life, and bright spots in Jewish inclusion. While woven throughout, this latter section includes an in-depth dive into particular innovations in Jewish ritual and practice for individuals with disabilities. The chapter concludes with recommendations for areas for future growth both in the “structure of inclusion” and the “spirit of belonging.”
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  • 30
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 59-70
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 59-70
    Keywords: Ritual History ; Pilgrims and pilgrimages History ; Judaism History ; Jews Social life and customs ; Eretz Israel Antiquities
    Abstract: This chapter considers ancient Jewish ritual and practice through the lens of material culture. Its focus is on three areas of inquiry: the archaeology of Jewish pilgrimage; the archaeology of bodily practice, including purification, eating practices, and mortuary customs; and the archaeology of the communal gathering at the synagogue. The material remains drawn upon for the discussion derive primarily, though not exclusively, from Israel-Palestine of the Roman and Byzantine periods, namely the first century BCE through the sixth century CE. The chapter seeks to shed light on the embodied, sensory, and experiential elements of early Judaism, subjects at the intersection of materiality and religious studies. It is also indebted to a reframing of ritual studies toward approaches emphasizing the lived experience of ritual agents.
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  • 31
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 558-567
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 558-567
    Keywords: Christianity and other religions Judaism ; History ; Judaism Relations ; Christianity ; Church history
    Abstract: The intersections of Jewish and Christian ritual practice begin with shared roots in Second Temple Judaism and continue to today. However, their different theologies and sacred narratives and tendencies to define themselves in opposition to one another resulted in practices with minimal overlap. Nevertheless, as a minority community, Jews in Christian lands were greatly influenced by the aesthetics of Christian practices, and especially in recent centuries, deliberately imitated them. Israeli culture, though, has caused a resurgence of specifically Jewish expressions, and created a country where Jews are the majority culture. The radical post-Holocaust changes to Christian thinking about Jews have also led some Christians deliberately to imitate and integrate Jewish ritual practices.
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  • 32
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 400-413
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 400-413
    Keywords: Sex in rabbinical literature ; Sex Religious aspects ; Judaism ; Jewish ethics ; Marriage (Jewish law) ; Husband and wife (Jewish law)
    Abstract: The contrast between the Jewish ethical tradition and many other faith (and legal) traditions is worth focusing on. The Jewish tradition has a sexual ethic that is quite vibrant. It prohibits incest, adultery, rape – even marital rape, and recognizes that marriage has both a reproductive and a companionship justification. But yet, the Jewish tradition never fully embraced a deep and theological prohibition on polygamy and never fully endorsed any deep prohibition against non-marital sexuality. Of course, neither of these are still overtly present in the traditional Jewish community, but this chapter explores the parameters of models of sexuality in the Jewish tradition within the historical, religious, and theological models found in classical Talmudic Judaism.
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  • 33
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 446-459
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 446-459
    Keywords: Jewish mourning customs ; Death Religious aspects ; Judaism ; Jewish funeral rites and ceremonies ; Secular Jews Relations ; Orthodox Jews
    Abstract: This ethnographic chapter is about alternative (non-Orthodox) funeral rituals in Israel, from the post-secular and post-modern perspectives. I trace the major components of non-Orthodox funeral rites in Israel. I propose to view them as a novel type of post-secular, post-modern ritual, which combines components associated with the meta-categories of religion and secularism, rather than exchanging one set for another. The new alternative ritual in Israel entails hybridization of canonic religious prayers and appeals to God with components devoid of religious connotation and even conveying an unequivocally anti-religious message, such as a secular Kaddish, poems and songs of famous Israeli and world poets and singers. My second claim is that in the frame of alternative rituals, the canonic and static repertoire of the Jewish Orthodox funeral is replaced by the new, more flexible repertoire of literary creativity including pieces from modern Hebrew and world poetry. These transformations in funeral rituals reflect multiple changes occurring in Israeli society: the trends toward post-modernism, post-secularism, feminism and the changing status of women; and growing individualism reflecting the increased presence of Western individualist ideas in Israel. The mass immigration from the secular (former) Soviet Union, economic growth in the context of globalization, a neoliberal shift since the 2000s, an expansion of consumerism, and new demands for recognition by non-Orthodox groups, all enabled the emergence of dramatic changes in the area of alternative funerals.
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  • 34
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 511-525
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 511-525
    Keywords: Jewish magic History
    Abstract: This chapter provides an overview of practices that may be termed “magical”, employed by Jews in various locations, primarily during Late Antiquity. The practices are divided according to aim (protective or aggressive magic) as well as form (oral, textual, or a manipulation of materials). The chapter provides examples from the rabbinic literature as well as magic manuals, exemplifying magical practices and beliefs common among some Jews in that period.
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  • 35
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 568-578
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 568-578
    Keywords: Samaritans Doctrines ; Samaritans History ; Fasts and feasts Samaritans ; Eretz Israel Religion
    Abstract: As a branch of Israelite Yahwism, Samaritanism’s rituals and practices have many similarities with Judaism, but, at the same time, the community has developed its own traditions based on its readings of the Pentateuch and its halakha developed over the centuries. The chapter gives an overview of Samaritan rituals and practices ranging from the furnishings of the synagogue and the strict observance of the rules of ritual purity to the three annual pilgrimages and the celebration of the Passover as prescribed in Exodus 12.
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  • 36
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 25-45
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 25-45
    Keywords: Talmud Bavli Criticism, interpretation, etc.
    Abstract: Midrash is woven through Jewish ritual and practice in diverse ways. Many passages within midrashic literature discuss specific practices as if defining their shape or meaning, or justifying their observance by rooting them in the Hebrew Bible. There are also Jewish rituals that incorporate midrashic texts and themes as part of their observance. Finally, it can be argued that midrash is itself a Jewish practice. Each of these avenues is treated in turn, drawing in perspectives from ritual theory that illuminate their significance.
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  • 37
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 71-92
    Keywords: Jews History Middle Ages, 500-1500 ; Jews History Middle Ages, 500-1500 ; Synagogue art ; Synagogue art ; Judaism Liturgical objects ; Judaism Liturgical objects
    Abstract: Ritual objects of Medieval European societies stand as silent witnesses to the beliefs and practices of bygone generations and cultures. While historians employ mostly written documents to examine past events and life, works of art and three-dimensional objects provide no less valuable historical evidence about past societies. Moreover, images and tangible objects reveal at times information that can never be attained from written words. While the known texts of the Middle Ages were regularly composed by an educated elite and intended for a select group of literate people, mostly men, who could also afford to possess costly manuscripts, the surviving objects in particular were produced by ordinary craftsmen and artisans, or even laypersons, for people in all walks of life. Accordingly, they may represent diverse levels of a given society, minority cultures, educated and illiterate, men and women, and at the same time bear witness to myriad aspects of contemporary material culture – daily life and practices, rituals, customs and manners, as well as modes and styles of decoration, and aesthetic values and ideals of the makers and their audiences – aspects that words can never adequately describe.
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  • 38
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 150-160
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 150-160
    Keywords: Judaism Liturgical objects ; Material culture ; Cultural property ; Jews, European ; Jews Migrations
    Abstract: The burgeoning of Jewish material culture in the modern era includes a vast number and variety of ritual objects for home and synagogue as well as the creation of new items that reflect the expansion of modern Jewish culture beyond traditional devotional practices. Noteworthy as well are new social practices involving material culture, such as collecting, marketing, preserving, and exhibiting. Material culture has been imbued with a range of symbolic values, including its role in memory practices and consumerism. The study of material culture in the modern era has become a subject of attention for growing numbers of Jewish Studies scholars in the humanities and social sciences.
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  • 39
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 579-589
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 579-589
    Keywords: Jews Social life and customs ; Interfaith marriage ; Judaism History
    Abstract: Jewish life has always changed, but nowhere has this been more evident than in the area of interfaith marriages. They have always occurred, but more so today than ever before. At first the Jewish community reacted with hurt and hostility, but gradually realised that this was not only failing to have any impact on the growing trend, but was depriving itself of those who might otherwise have stayed within its ranks. The result has been a gradual thawing of attitudes that has led to major changes in all areas of cycle of life rituals, from birth to bar/batmitzvah to betrothal to burial. Although there are some sections of the community that still resist any such outreach, the overall outcome has been a much more inclusive approach.
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  • 40
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 137-149
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 137-149
    Keywords: Sephardim Social life and customs 19th century ; Mysticism Judaism ; Cabala History ; Judaism Customs and practices ; History
    Abstract: The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries witnessed an impressive rise in the invention of new religious rituals in Jewish tradition, and charging traditional rituals with new meaning. It extended to all aspects of Jewish life, those regulated by Halakhah and even neutral domains from the Halakhic perspective, such as sleep, clothes, or good manners. Behind this ‘Ritual Turn’ stood the rise of early modern Kabbalah and the unprecedented shift from esoteric patterns to publicity and disseminating the Jewish mystical lore. These changes took place mostly in Jewish communities under the Ottoman Empire, and their main instigators were mystics of Sephardi origins. It added one front to the Jewish-Iberian cultural and political dominance over other Jewish local traditions. The ritual changes provide a trustworthy indication to important changes in Jewish religiosity, and the deep interaction between Jewish and non-Jewish religious changes in the early modern period, especially in the Ottoman context.
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  • 41
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 345-360
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 345-360
    Keywords: Food Religious aspects ; Judaism ; Food Moral and ethical aspects ; Food Social aspects ; Food in the Bible ; Kashrut
    Abstract: This chapter argues that evolving food ritual and practices have played an important role in the development of Jewish culture, religion and identity from its biblical origins and rabbinic innovations to contemporary discussion about food ethics. Following a broadly chronological structure, the chapter discusses the ancient origins of Jewish dietary laws and examines how Jews throughout history have observed, adapted, challenged or critiqued them as authentic expressions of what being Jewish meant to them. The final section of the chapter discusses some economic aspects of kashrut, highlighting both the financial costs of a kosher diet and the economic implications, particularly in regard to the non-Jewish world. While Jewish dietary laws are often seen as a barrier between Jews and non-Jews, they have also offered economic opportunities across religious boundaries.
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  • 42
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 436-445
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 436-445
    Keywords: Death Religious aspects ; Judaism ; Jewish funeral rites and ceremonies ; Jewish mourning customs
    Abstract: Judaism has a very extensive set of traditions and rituals for responding to the reality of death, dying and mourning. These rituals help families cope with grief and provide comfort in dealing with the journey of bereavement. Understanding the elements of practice as well as the psychological and spiritual function of the various rituals provides the dying and bereaved and their families a powerful system for recovering from grief and loss.
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  • 43
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 163-178
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 163-178
    Keywords: Sephardim History ; Ashkenazim History ; Jews Social life and customs
    Abstract: This chapter presents a new exploration of the differences and their origins between Sephardic and Ashkenazi practice. To fully understand the origin of the differences this study undertook a careful analysis of primary texts and their cultural background. The thesis proposes that the two divergent traditions originate not geographically as has been suggested by most if not all academics and scholars but rather culturally and epistemologically. Legal conclusions as well as religious customs emerge from a difference in how each of the respective societies relate to authority. In an Ashkenazi environment, the ruling of the Rabbi or Rebbe is final. In those cultures, the study of science and philosophy was discouraged and even outlawed. In Sephardic societies, where science and philosophy were studied alongside religious texts, democratic legal discussions based on the science and philosophy of the day were how rulings and customs emerged. The presentation and conclusions are striking and relevant to understanding Judaism in the 21st century.
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  • 44
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 215-228
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 215-228
    Keywords: Hasidism Customs and practices ; Hasidism History
    Abstract: Hasidism, one of the most prominent social religious movements in the Jewish world in the last three hundred years, has always demonstrated significant modifications and additions to the Jewish ritual system. Yet the rituals introduced by members of the Hasidic movement did not break the boundaries of the traditional Jewish ritual system; on the contrary, they quite often added a layer of extra pietism to traditional practices. This chapter surveys rituals in Hasidism according to the social contexts of their performance, introduces various ways in which they changed the Jewish ritual system, points to opposition toward the allegedly Hasidic practices, and aims to explain their effect on the Hasidim themselves as well as their contribution to Hasidism’s popularity.
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  • 45
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 229-247
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 229-247
    Keywords: Conservative Judaism History
    Abstract: There are seven core values of Conservative Judaism from 1845–2020. The history of Conservative Judaism can be divided into four periods: the Historical School in Germany and the U.S., 1845–1902; the birth and growth of the Conservative movement in the U.S. and Canada, 1902–1945; rapid expansion in the U.S. and Canada, 1946–1990; and contraction in the US, 1990–2020. These are discussed in the first section of the chapter. The next section describes the birth and growth of the worldwide Masorti Movement, 1959–2020, and the final section deals with ideological debates, halakhah, and liturgy.
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  • 46
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 294-302
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 294-302
    Keywords: Jews Social life and customs 21st century ; Jewish way of life ; Television programs ; Jews on television ; Families on television
    Abstract: The Jewish family on television often displays what are taken to be the confusions of modernity, and there are good reasons for this. Jews have often been seen as harbingers of social change and represented accordingly in the media. They represent something of the fluidity of modern and postmodern life, and this is often reflected in a playful attitude to ritual and practice, and traditional social roles. The main focus of this chapter is on the Pfeffermans in the Amazon series Transparent.
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  • 47
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 335-344
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 335-344
    Keywords: Jewish clothing and dress History ; Judaism Customs and practices
    Abstract: Some Jews wear very distinctive clothes, and there are rules in the Bible about clothing, but they do not explain what Jews wear today on the whole. There are rules of modesty that are taken to oblige those who take them seriously to conceal parts of their body and often to wear clothes that seem inappropriate given the climate of the country in which they live. On the other hand, difficulty in religion often attracts rather than the reverse, and establishes a serious and committed attitude in its followers. The role of clothing in religion will be discussed as part of trying to understand how such rituals are organized and what it means to follow them.
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  • 48
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 385-399
    Keywords: Jewish women Social life and customs ; Amen (Liturgy)
    Abstract: The Amen meal is a new ritual for women, with the primary goal of reciting the maximum number of amens as responses to blessings on food. The chapter will explore the Amen meal ritual in terms of its characteristics and components. It will argue that the Amen ritual is a part of the New Age phenomenon and will describe the social and cultural contexts and circumstances that created and supported this ritual. The data are based on a qualitative-ethnographic feminist study, including in-depth interviews and participant observation. The participants’ actions, attitudes, and perceptions cited in the chapter show that the Amen rituals make possible the creation of a new space that sets out to respond to women’s spiritual, feminine, social gratifications and needs. The Amen meal is a new powerful ritual for New Age women seeking to express their feelings of autonomy.
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  • 49
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 203-214
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 203-214
    Keywords: Haskalah History
    Abstract: Jewish historiography typically credits the movement known as the “Jewish Enlightenment” (Hebrew noun Haskalah/adjective maskil) with initiating the programmatic reform of Jewish practice. Although few scholars would now be content to equate the maskilic project with the social process of secularization and the general relaxation of Jewish collective discipline, academic consensus still maintains that the movement aspired to liberate Judaism from the dead hand of rabbinic authority and the anachronism of popular custom. Sidelining the fact that the Haskalah was a literary movement driven as much by aesthetic means as by ideological ends, this highly partial view rests largely on a decontextualized and naive reproduction of polemical pronouncements aimed at contemporary Jewish behavior. It is true that maskilim often expressed frustration with the benighted condition of the Jewish masses; but it is equally true that they were just as frustrated, if not more so, with the attrition of Jewish practice among upwardly mobile elites. More importantly, within the maskilic literary system, Jewish practice occupied a privileged position as an object of representation, the emotional significance of which transcended the rationalist imperative of attaching philosophically tenable “reasons” to the commandments. While deliberate interventions to update and normalize Jewish practice almost always met with failure, maskilic literature proved much more successful in encouraging the creation of a modern Jewish sensibility ambivalent about the Enlightenment project that threatened to reduce Jewishness to an idea and strip Jewish memory of its social meaning.
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  • 50
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 248-256
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 248-256
    Keywords: Reform Judaism History
    Abstract: The idea of reforming religion seems to involve good arguments for and against. Anything can surely be done better if we look closely at it and see how we might adapt it to more modern times and conditions. On the other hand, surely what God tells us to do should not change, since He is a perfect lawgiver and knows precisely how times will change. His law should remain constant throughout all such changes. The Reform movement as it has come to be known in Judaism works very much with the idea that everything has to change to fit in with where we are now, including religion. It is very much this idea, that religion can and should be reformed, that is discussed in this chapter.
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  • 51
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 305-313
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 305-313
    Keywords: Berit milah History
    Abstract: Circumcision has for a long time been taken to be a crucial ritual for male Jews, and it has often been credited with keeping the distinctiveness of the community alive after so many millennia. Yet like many rituals it seems not to have any particular benefits apart from a few health aspects, which themselves are not clear cut. It also results in mutilation of the body of a child at an age where he cannot give informed consent, and often seems designed to hinder sexual pleasure. In modern times some Jews have questioned the ritual yet it remains overwhelmingly popular and, of course, is widely practiced by other religious and secular groups. Following the trajectory of this very specific instruction is helpful in understanding the role that rules play in Judaism.
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  • 52
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 12-24
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 12-24
    Keywords: Midrash Introductions
    Abstract: Midrash is woven through Jewish ritual and practice in diverse ways. Many passages within midrashic literature discuss specific practices as if defining their shape or meaning, or justifying their observance by rooting them in the Hebrew Bible. There are also Jewish rituals that incorporate midrashic texts and themes as part of their observance. Finally, it can be argued that midrash is itself a Jewish practice. Each of these avenues is treated in turn, drawing in perspectives from ritual theory that illuminate their significance.
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  • 53
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    Article
    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 93-124
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2023
    Titel der Quelle: Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2023) 93-124
    Keywords: Jewish illumination of books and manuscripts History ; Prayer Judaism ; Jewish way of life
    Abstract: This chapter offers a brief survey of premodern visualizations of Jewish rituals. Such visualizations address both the performances and/or the symbolic and mythical aspects of the rituals. The focus is on how the artist’s (or patron’s) life experience might have shaped his/her perception of ritual and religious life. The chapter is structured roughly along communal ritual, on the one hand, and the private arena, on the other with occasional overlappings and intersections. It begins with a brief discussion of visual references to synagogal ritual as it emerged in late antiquity followed by an analysis of images showing public prayer in the Middle Ages. The second section discusses the role of the communal arena in preparations for Passover; and the third addresses life cycle events that were celebrated in the public sphere. The final discussion focuses on the Passover ritual celebrated in the private sphere. The chapter ends with a brief look at the early modern period and some observations on contemporaneous social change and its effects on book culture.
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  • 54
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    In:  Routledge Handbook on Jewish Ritual and Practice (2023) 193-202