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  • 1
    Language: Hebrew
    Year of publication: 2024
    Titel der Quelle: אוקימתא; מחקרים בספרות התלמודית והרבנית
    Angaben zur Quelle: י (תשפד) 1-18
    Keywords: Mishnah. Criticism, interpretation, etc. ; Bible. Criticism, interpretation, etc. ; Yom Kippur in rabbinical literature ; Sacrifice Judaism ; Sin Judaism
    Abstract: Mishnah Kippurim is clearly divided into two parts: chapters one to sevendiscuss the atonement rituals in the shrine, whereas the eighth chapterfocuses on the laws concerning the individual on the Day of Atonement -the obligations of physical affliction, the laws related to life endangermentand to the individual’s means of atonement.In the past, many scholars assumed that the difference between thefirst seven chapters of the tractate and the seventh chapter waschronological-historical: the first seven chapters are earlier mishnayot,from the time of the second Temple and describe the service in theMikdash, whereas the eighth chapter was composed after the destructionof the Temple, when the Tannaim sought alternative ways of atonement.In recent years, however, some scholars have questioned this division andshown that, in fact, chapters one to seven were composed after thedestruction of the temple, and even if earlier historical traditions areintegrated into these chapters, the discussions in the Mishnah and theirediting are the products of the post-destruction Tannaitic beit midrash. Insuch a case, the division between the two sections is conceptual, notchronological: the first section deals with Yom Kippur atonement by meansof sacrifices and the second part of the tractate deals with individualatonement in a situation when there are no sacrifices on Yom Kippur.Examination of Mishnah Kippurim 8, 8, however, raises a seriousdifficulty in that regard: the Mishnah then speaks of Yom Kippuratonement without sacrifices, why are the sin and guilt offeringsintroduced here? The central contention in this article is that the eighthchapter of Mishnah Kippurim introduces a unique concept stating that evenin the temple period, sacrifices did not atone for the individual as much as“the power of the day” itself. According to this concept, only individualacts of atonement will affect personal atonement and the sole task of theDay atonement sacrifices is to atone for the community
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