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Article
In:  In Geveb; a Journal of Yiddish Studies (2016) 5 pp.
Language: English
Year of publication: 2016
Titel der Quelle: In Geveb; a Journal of Yiddish Studies
Angaben zur Quelle: (2016) 5 pp.
Keywords: Jews Languages ; Yiddish language ; Jews Social conditions 20th century ; United States Ethnic relations 20th century ; History
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Associated Volumes
  • 2
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2020
    Titel der Quelle: In Geveb; a Journal of Yiddish Studies
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2020) 11 pp.
    Keywords: An-Ski, S., ; Dybuk (Motion picture : 1937) ; Motion pictures, Yiddish
    Abstract: This essay explores the ​“Jew­ish way of say­ing things” in the 1937 Yid­dish film ver­sion of S. An-ski’s The Dyb­buk, by exam­in­ing the marsha­lik (emcee), bad­khn (joke­ster), or wed­ding bard, fea­tured promi­nent­ly in the sto­ry. Com­par­i­son with a 1971 bad­khn per­for­mance in Israel by Yosef Gru­en­wald, an ordi­nary prac­ti­tion­er of the art, empha­sizes the bad­khn​’s para­dox­i­cal role as hired help — a pro­fes­sion­al out­sider who nonethe­less occu­pies a cen­tral role in artic­u­lat­ing myth­ic and arche­typ­al dimen­sions of nup­tial union. In the film, the Mar­sha­lik is played by the same actor who played ill-fat­ed Nisn, whose dear friend Sender had vowed with him to pledge their unborn chil­dren in mar­riage. Nisn dies and the vow goes unful­filled, but their chil­dren meet and fall in love, and are even­tu­al­ly sep­a­rat­ed by death and reunit­ed by dyb­buk pos­ses­sion. The film is a com­plex, lay­ered struc­ture unit­ing, via mashal (proverb) and sto­ry, the nine­teenth cen­tu­ry shtetl, An-ski’s Great War-era play, inter­war Poland, and the lit­er­a­ture of catastrophe.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2020
    Titel der Quelle: In Geveb; a Journal of Yiddish Studies
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2020) 21 pp.
    Keywords: Bergelson, David, Criticism and interpretation ; Hofstein, David, Criticism and interpretation ; Jew­ish Antifas­cist Com­mit­tee ; Yiddish literature History and criticism ; Yiddish newspapers ; Jews Politics and government ; Yiddish language ; World War, 1939-1945 Influence
    Abstract: Sovi­et nation­al­i­ties pol­i­cy towards its Jew­ish cit­i­zens was in flux dur­ing the first two decades of the new com­mu­nist state’s exis­tence. While Yid­dish was made an offi­cial lan­guage and ben­e­fit­ted from unprece­dent­ed state sup­port in the 1920s, the 1930s were large­ly marked by renewed repres­sions. The out­break of the Great Patri­ot­ic War between the Sovi­et Union and Nazi Ger­many in June 1941 meant a new rene­go­ti­a­tion of pow­er between Yid­dish cul­ture and the Sovi­et gov­ern­ment. Pre­vi­ous­ly sti­fled Jew­ish con­nec­tions across bor­ders were renewed, as is best rep­re­sent­ed by a major August 1941 ral­ly in Gorky Park, which was broad­cast to a Jew­ish audi­ence abroad and from where Dovid Bergel­son made an appeal to his ​“broth­er Jews of the entire world!” This arti­cle looks at the wartime artis­tic and jour­nal­is­tic out­put of Dovid Bergel­son and Dovid Hof­shteyn, two promi­nent Sovi­et-Yid­dish writ­ers and mem­bers of the Jew­ish Antifas­cist Com­mit­tee, to see how these writ­ers appro­pri­at­ed Sovi­et ter­mi­nol­o­gy which called the Rus­sians the ​“elder broth­ers” of the Sovi­et fam­i­ly in order to paint Sovi­et Jews as the elder broth­ers in a world­wide Jew­ish fam­i­ly of their own. To do so, they remind­ed their audi­ence of the Jew­ish con­nec­tion to Ukraine, which was cur­rent­ly under attack, demon­strat­ed the ways that Sovi­et Jews main­tained an authen­tic con­nec­tion to that land, and exhib­it­ed the effect that Sovi­et pow­er had had in cul­ti­vat­ing the Sovi­et Jews for their new role, hav­ing turned them into suit­able lead­ers of the future Jew­ish family.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2020
    Titel der Quelle: In Geveb; a Journal of Yiddish Studies
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2020) 13 pp.
    Keywords: Sholem Aleichem, ; Yiddish fiction History and criticism ; Yiddish language Spoken Yiddish ; Language and languages in literature
    Abstract: In this essay, Wisse ana­lyzes the rela­tion­ship between speech and com­mu­ni­ca­tion in Sholem Ale­ichem’s Tevye the Dairy­man. Wisse argues that the rela­tion­ship between Sholem Ale­ichem and Tevye con­sti­tutes a minia­ture Jew­ish ter­ri­to­ry where togeth­er they reassert moral con­trol over every­thing that they endure. Tevye’s humor often reports on mis­un­der­stand­ing and fail­ures of speech— two decades of set­backs involv­ing mis­un­der­stand­ing, con­ceal­ment, sup­pressed infor­ma­tion, fab­ri­ca­tion, dou­ble-enten­dre, threat, and worse. But between the speak­er and his lis­ten­er there is a deep­en­ing inter­de­pen­den­cy. Their durable com­mu­nion pro­vides a kind of secu­ri­ty, hold­ing the cul­ture togeth­er demo­c­ra­t­i­cal­ly on mid­dle ground, even if it is impos­si­ble to repro­duce gen­er­a­tional­ly and it can­not repel those exter­nal forces that come to destroy it.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2020
    Titel der Quelle: In Geveb; a Journal of Yiddish Studies
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2020) 9 pp.
    Keywords: Sholem Aleichem, Criticism and interpretation ; Yiddish fiction History and criticism ; Shtetls in literature ; Taverns (Inns) in literature ; Yiddish language Spoken Yiddish ; Language and languages in literature
    Abstract: This essay explores the ways in which the tav­ern and its urban-mod­ern par­al­lels func­tion in the works of Sholem Ale­ichem. It argues that through his mas­ter­ful, talk­a­tive Yid­dish prose (or to use the term Roskies coined for Yid­dish lit­er­a­ture’s emu­la­tion of the spo­ken word: ​“Jew­speak”), he cre­at­ed a unique spa­tial set­ting that sym­bol­i­cal­ly mit­i­gat­ed the shock of moder­ni­ty for the Yid­dish public.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2019
    Titel der Quelle: In Geveb; a Journal of Yiddish Studies
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2019) pp 25
    Keywords: Soloveitchik, Joseph Dov, Philosophy ; Jewish sermons 20th century ; Jewish sermons, Yiddish ; God (Judaism) Philosophy ; Yiddish language Terms and phrases
    Abstract: The legacy of Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik (1903-1993) casts a long shadow over twentieth-century Jewish thought. He is remembered as a scholar, a teacher, and a theological presence - an idealized role model as much as a practical influence. His disciples and interpreters characterize his intellectual project in a striking variety of ways, from a fiercely Orthodox leader to a modern intellectual; these conflicts were aspects of his persona that he himself cultivated. The present essay explores an ideational dialectic in Soloveitchik's work that offers a conceptual window into the author's fragmented and multi-layered thought: the tension between individual autonomy and communal responsibility. This theme, much discussed in his writings, is the central concern of a little-studied but critical essay called "Yokhed ve-tsiber" ("The Individual and the Collective"), an undated work was first delivered as a droshe (sermon) on his father's yortsayt. Scholarship on Soloveitchik's teachings has tended to focus exclusively on his Hebrew or English works rather than his Yiddish writings, but the present essay traces Soloveitchik's style and exploring the nuances of intellectual legacy through the lens of this important Yiddish homily. Close attention to Soloveitchik's droshe and its language reveals a mélange of textual and philosophical influences, as he weaves rabbinic and medieval sources together with modern thought and political philosophy. When Soloveitchik writes in Yiddish, as when he speaks or writes in English, it is not quite recognizable as the language of other speakers: it is deterritorialized by his erudition, his intellectual migrations, and perhaps also by his personal sense of isolation from other Yiddish (or English) speakers. In this sense, I argue that Soloveitchik's self-fashioning as the "lonely man of faith" is embodied in the particulars of his language as well as his specific philosophical teachings
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  • 7
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2020
    Titel der Quelle: In Geveb; a Journal of Yiddish Studies
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2020)
    Keywords: Cahan, Abraham, Criticism and interpretation ; Forverts (New York, N.Y.) ; Jews Languages ; History ; Language and culture History ; Jews Education ; Yiddish newspapers History
    Abstract: The arti­cle focus­es on the para­dox of the neg­a­tive atti­tude artic­u­lat­ed by a Yid­dish news­pa­per toward using Yid­dish as the edu­ca­tion­al medi­um of instruc­tion in Amer­i­can Jew­ish schools. Abra­ham Cahan, the edi­tor-in-chief, and many, if not the major­i­ty, of the staff writ­ers (all of them social­ists of var­i­ous shad­ings) con­tend­ed that Yid­dish was detri­men­tal to Amer­i­can children’s edu­ca­tion­al achieve­ments. Such atti­tude stemmed from their oppo­si­tion to Yid­dishism, which they con­sid­ered as a form of nation­al­ism and a hin­drance to Amer­i­can­iza­tion. In addi­tion, they dis­ap­proved of what they saw as an unjus­ti­fi­ably reformed lan­guage, used by ​“Yid­dishist” teach­ers. Fol­low­ing vocif­er­ous protests among its read­ers, includ­ing func­tionar­ies and activists of Jew­ish orga­ni­za­tions, the Forverts was forced to revamp its stand on Yid­dish education.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2021
    Titel der Quelle: In Geveb; a Journal of Yiddish Studies
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2021) 14 pp.
    Keywords: Yeshivat Ḥakhme Lublin (Lublin, Poland) History ; Yeshivot History ; Hasidism
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  • 9
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2019
    Titel der Quelle: In Geveb; a Journal of Yiddish Studies
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2019) 9 pp.
    Keywords: Ashkenazi, Yaakov ben Yitzchak, ; Yiddish literature History and criticism
    Abstract: The Ze'enah U-Re'enah is the most popular Yiddish book ever published, having been through at least 275 printings since its first, in the beginning of the seventeenth century. To date, two hundred and forty editions in Yiddish, and thirty-four full and partial translations, paraphrases, and summaries, in seven languages, have been identified. Unfortunately, much of what has been written, both scholarly and popular, about this pivotal work is incorrect. This includes the definition of what the Ze'enah U-Re'enah is, the identity of its author, the title of the work, the educational profile of its intended audience, and its publication history. The recent appearance of the first complete critical translation of the Ze'enah U-Re'enah into English would be an appropriate time to reconsider and correct the facts surrounding this important work. The scholarly discussion of the evidence and more detailed documentation can be found in the Introduction to my translation of the Ze'enah U-Re'enah.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    Year of publication: 2019
    Titel der Quelle: In Geveb; a Journal of Yiddish Studies
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2019) pp 23
    Keywords: Habad ; Hasidism ; Yiddish language History ; Hebrew language History ; Language and languages Religious aspects ; Judaism
    Abstract: Yiddish has always been the oracular mainstay of Chabad's intellectual and spiritual trajectory. Initially it was simply the vernacular of the Jews in Eastern Europe, and its use, even in Hasidic publications, merely reflected its utility as a linguistic medium for the dissemination of Hasidic teachings. From the mid-nineteenth century, however, Yiddish became a contested language, an ideological and cultural battleground. In response to the linguistic interventions proposed by proponents of Haskalah and Zionism, Yiddish became subject to broader ideological considerations for Chabad's leaders. By the 1920s, processes of urbanization and migration had dramatically changed the linguistic environment in which Chabad sought to perpetuate its teachings, and the use of Yiddish began to be seen as a link to the past, but also as a gateway for the translation of Hasidic teachings into other languages, an initiative in which women played important roles. In this period, Yiddish also began to be framed as a linguistic bridge between alienation and intimacy, reflecting the classical Chabad concern with the sacralization of the self and the world. In the post-Holocaust era, the movement's seventh Rebbe enfolded earlier Chabad conceptions of Yiddish within a fuller theorization, drawing on the classical Hasidic doctrine of divine immanence to recast Yiddish as the language of redemption, a language whose true significance must ultimately transcend the particularity of any Jewish language, and resonate in every language.
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