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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    ISBN: 9789264515055 , 9789264907591 , 9789264601116
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (113 p.) , 21 x 28cm.
    Year of publication: 2021
    Series Statement: OECD Multi-level Governance Studies
    Keywords: Gemeindefinanzen ; Grundsteuer ; Finanzausgleich ; Israel ; Urban, Rural and Regional Development ; Taxation ; Governance ; Israel ; Amtsdruckschrift
    Abstract: This report provides a comprehensive analysis of the Israeli system of local government finance, with a focus on the role of the Israeli property tax, known as the Arnona. Local governments are financed through a combination of revenue, primarily from central government grants and from the Arnona, which is levied on residential and non-residential land and buildings but is based on their physical size rather than their value. The first chapter provides a description of the Israeli system of local government finance and compares it to local government finance in OECD countries. Using standard criteria for the evaluation of taxes, the second chapter assess the strengths and shortcoming of the Arnona and the intergovernmental grant system. Attention is paid to fiscal disparities among municipalities and to the ability of the current system to provide all Israelis with adequate and equitable access to economic and social services and infrastructure. The final chapter presents a set of 13 policy recommendations divided between proposals for improving the existing Arnona system and a longer-run blueprint for a more substantial reform of the system of local government finance in Israel based on the establishment of a value-based system of local property taxation.
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    ISBN: 9789264079267
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (286 p.)
    Year of publication: 2010
    Series Statement: OECD Reviews of Labour Market and Social Policies
    Parallel Title: Druckausg.
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Israel
    DDC: 331.12095694
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Keywords: Arbeitsmarkt ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Sozialpolitik ; Israel ; Employment ; Social Issues/Migration/Health ; Israel ; Israel ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Beschäftigungsentwicklung ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Älterer Arbeitnehmer ; Minderheitenfrage ; Armut
    Abstract: This 2009 review of Israeli labour market and social policy finds that Israel has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, but the benefits of this are being distributed unevenly. Poverty rates are higher than in any OECD country, which reflects the deep social and economic divides in Israeli society. On one side, there is the general Jewish population with poverty and employment rates similar to those of OECD countries. On the other, there are Arabs and ultra-Orthodox Jews, or Haredim, who have large families, poor educational outcomes and low employment rates. As a result, just over half of Arab and Haredi families live in poverty. Almost half of all children entering primary school in Israel come from one of these two groups, so profound policy changes are needed to prevent future generations of Arabs and Haredim from being scarred by the disadvantages these population groups face today.  Tackling the root causes of such deep inequality would greatly enhance the dynamism of the Israeli economy. Greater investment to help workers improve their skills is urgently needed. Welfare-to-work programmes need to be restructured and extended, including by reducing child benefits paid to families who are able to work but do not and by sharply increasing the Earned Income Tax Credit to tackle in-work poverty more effectively. And access to means-tested income supports for the neediest should be improved. Israel has failed to enforce many aspects of its labour legislation, contributing to poor employment conditions for many resident, cross-border and foreign low-income workers. Rules to overcome discrimination against all workers need to be enforced, and the illegal hiring and employment of temporary foreign workers need to be stamped out.   Progress has been made in many of these areas. New legislation and initiatives have been introduced. The challenge is how to make reform work in practice. The consequences of not doing so would be devastating.
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    ISBN: 9789264277366
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (148 p.) , 21 x 28cm.
    Year of publication: 2017
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Spatial planning and policy in Israel
    Keywords: Regionalplanung ; Raumordnung ; Kommunalpolitik ; Stadtentwicklung ; Israel ; Urban, Rural and Regional Development ; Israel ; Israel ; Raumordnungspolitik
    Abstract: This report examines spatial planning and policies in Israel. It describes the laws, policies and practices in the country as a whole, and provides a detailed assessment of arrangements and practices in two cities: Netanya, a fast-growing city on the Mediterranean coast; and Umm al-Fahm, the country’s third-largest city with a predominantly Arab population. Israel recently carried out a major reform of its land-use planning system, largely to address a housing shortage that has become critical. Detailed case studies highlight the trends and challenges faced in both cities and describe how policies designed at the national level affect local land-use issues. The report offers recommendations on how to strengthen the effectiveness of the spatial planning system and related policies to ensure that land is used in an effective and sustainable way.
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  • 4
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    ISBN: 9789264255319 , 9789264246034
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (136 p.) , 21 x 28cm.
    Year of publication: 2016
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Measuring and assessing well-being in Israel
    Keywords: Lebensqualität ; Sozialer Indikator ; Messung ; Israel ; Social Issues/Migration/Health ; Israel
    Abstract: Measuring and Assessing Well-being in Israel provides a description of the level, distribution, and sustainability of well-being in Israel. Drawing on the methodology developed in the bi-annual report on well-being in OECD countries – How's Life? – this report extends the methodology to provide in an-depth examination of well-being in a single OECD country. The report examines well-being in Israel in the context of the Israeli government's recent initiative to develop indicators of well-being, resilience, and sustainability, and provides a complementary account of well-being in Israel with a stronger focus on international comparisons. Going beyond a simple statistical description of the level and distribution of well-being in Israel, the report also uses Israel as a case study of how well-being measures can be used to identify areas of high policy relevance. In particular, the report analyses the preferences of Israeli citizens across the different dimensions of the OECD well-being framework. Finally, the report reviews the Israeli statistical system from the perspective of measuring well-being, and notes the key areas where further statistical development is desirable. Measuring and Assessing Well-being in Israel is part of the OECD Better Life Initiative, which features a series of publications on measuring well-being, as well as the Better Life Index, an interactive website that aims to involve citizens in the debate about what a better life means to them.
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  • 5
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing.
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Year of publication: 2021
    Series Statement: OECD Environment Statistics
    Keywords: Agriculture and Food
    Abstract: This dataset reports spending programmes and tax breaks in Israel that encourage the consumption or production of fossil fuels. These include measures that reduce prices for consumers, as well as those that lower exploration and exploitation costs for oil and gas companies.
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  • 6
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing.
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Year of publication: 2020
    Series Statement: OECD Environment Statistics
    Keywords: Agriculture and Food
    Abstract: This dataset reports spending programmes and tax breaks in Israel that encourage the consumption or production of fossil fuels. These include measures that reduce prices for consumers, as well as those that lower exploration and exploitation costs for oil and gas companies.
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  • 7
    ISBN: 9789264420298 , 9789264728783 , 9789264896789
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (144 p.) , 21 x 28cm.
    Year of publication: 2020
    Keywords: Environment ; Transport ; Israel
    Abstract: This report analyses the actions necessary in the near and medium term to reduce Israel’s GHG emissions in three sectors– electricity, residential and transport, for which specific policy recommendations are developed. The report will serve as input to the roadmap that will be developed to support the country’s long-term low-emission strategy (LT-LEDS). The report adopts a “well-being lens” that aims to integrate climate action and broader societal priorities, such as affordable housing, better accessibility to jobs, services and opportunities, and improved health. Such an approach can make climate policies both easier to implement politically, economically and socially, as well as more cost-effective. Particular attention is given to avoiding locking in unsustainable development pathways that would impede the achievement of net-zero carbon dioxide emissions in the second half of the century. In addition to the range of sector specific recommendations, a key recommendation for Israel is to enshrine the vision and targets of its LT-LEDS in national legislation, once developed and agreed. While written before the COVID-19 crisis, this report can also inform decisions on Israel’s recovery from the crisis, helping to avoid actions that would lock-in “inferior” carbon-intensive paradigms and entrench inequalities or reduce quality of life more broadly.
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  • 8
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    ISBN: 9789264459359 , 9789264806290 , 9789264633780
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (62 p.) , 21 x 28cm.
    Year of publication: 2021
    Keywords: Vergütungssystem im öffentlichen Dienst ; Israel ; Education ; Employment ; Governance ; Science and Technology ; Israel
    Abstract: This report analyses the pay system in Israel’s public sector, and provides recommendations to align it with the strategic priorities of the government. It recommends ways to simplify job classification and better match pay to market rates, particularly in areas where the public sector has trouble competing for talent. It also identifies opportunities to better reward performance, productivity and job responsibilities. In Israel, no pay reform is possible without the agreement and active collaboration of public sector unions, and so the second part of this report focuses on public sector labour relations and makes recommendations to improve the functioning of the collective bargaining process in Israel’s public sector. This report contributes to the ongoing work of the OECD’s Public Employment and Management working party, to support the implementation of the Recommendation of Council on Public Service Leadership and Capability.
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  • 9
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (circa 33 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    Year of publication: 2016
    Series Statement: OECD environment policy paper no. 05 (July 2016)
    Series Statement: OECD Environment Policy Papers no.5
    Keywords: Ökosteuer ; Kraftfahrzeug ; Umweltpolitik ; Israel ; Environment ; Israel ; Amtsdruckschrift ; Graue Literatur
    Abstract: In recent decades, Israel’s growing population and rising incomes have seen consumption increase substantially, bringing with it considerable pressure on the environment. One of the main environmental pressures is from the ever-increasing transport activity, especially the use of private vehicles. Although travelling in a private vehicle brings benefits to the individual using it, this entails costs to society as a whole. These social costs extend beyond the private costs of the car and the fuel borne by the car user, imposing a burden on public health and the environment. Transport involves noise, local air pollution, and contributes to climate change, congestion, accidents, and wear and tear to infrastructure. All these negatively affect public health and quality of life in general, a fact not taken into account when an individual chooses whether or not to buy a car. This is known as a “market failure”, because the price of a car does not fully reflect the social costs of using it. Governments can correct market failures like these through policies that ensure that the actual costs to society are incorporated within the price of a car, thus influencing consumers’ purchases. This paper describes how Israel developed an innovative scheme to encourage consumers to choose less polluting cars. The Green Tax scheme targets reductions in all polluting vehicle emissions, not only carbon dioxide (CO2). The paper outlines the design process, reflects on the challenges encountered and the environmental, economic and social impacts. It concludes by discussing the wider lessons that are raised for other governments seeking to tackle similar environmental problems.
    URL: Volltext  (lizenzpflichtig)
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  • 10
    ISBN: 9789264581296
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (115 p.) , 16 x 23cm.
    Year of publication: 2022
    Series Statement: Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes
    Keywords: Steuer ; Finanzverwaltung ; Internationale Zusammenarbeit ; Israel ; Taxation ; Israel
    Abstract: This publication contains the 2022 Second Round Peer Review on the Exchange of Information on Request for Israel. It refers to Phase 1 only (Legal and Regulatory Framework).
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