Online-Ressource (XII, 296 p. 50 illus., 33 illus. in color)
Online-Ausg.] Springer eBook Collection. Earth and Environmental Science
Year of publication:
Global Issues in Water Policy 4
Print version Water Policy in Israel
This book deals with water policy in Israel. It offers a detailed examination of the main sources of Israels water, its principle consumers, the gap between supply and demand, and the complex, contentious work of analyzing and devising the nations water management and use policies. Water Policy in Israel is arranged in five broad sections: The dynamics of moving from one policy era to another; Supply management; Demand management; The importance of the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea; and Regional and global issues including water conflict and cooperation and climate change.
This book deals with water policy in Israel. It offers a detailed examination of the main sources of Israel’s water, its principle consumers, the gap between supply and demand, and the complex, contentious work of analyzing and devising the nation’s water management and use policies. Water Policy in Israel is arranged in five broad sections: The dynamics of moving from one policy era to another; Supply management; Demand management; The importance of the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea; and Regional and global issues including water conflict and cooperation and climate change.Expert contributors discuss such topics as the history of Israel’s water policy, and the reasoning which explains long periods of policy stalemate, especially in situations where the risks generated by prolonged impasse are obvious. Other chapters describe efforts to meet agricultural demand for water by augmenting supplies with groundwater management, waste water re-use and desalination. The impact of climate change is discussed, along with the international dimensions of water policy, including many examples of conflict and cooperation between Israel and its neighbors, the Arab-Israeli conflict and possible areas of cooperation and conciliation. The last two chapters include a review of the last reforms initiated by the Israeli Water Authority in light of the foregoing issues which is followed by the last chapter, presenting the editor’s assessment and conclusions
Description based upon print version of record
Water Policy in Israel; Acknowledgement; Contents; Contributors; Chapter 1: Introduction; 1.1 General Background on the Water Sector in Israel; 1.1.1 Supply Sources; 1.1.2 Demand; 1.1.3 The Gap Between Supply and Demand; 1.1.4 Marginal Water; 1.2 The Need for Water Policy; 1.3 Structure of the Book; References; Chapter 2: The Four Eras of Israeli Water Policies; 2.1 The First Era: The Hydraulic Mission Period (1948-1964); 2.2 The Second Era: Wise Management? (1959-1990); 2.3 The Third Era: Reflexive Deliberations (1990-2005); 2.4 The Fourth Era? Desalination and Privatization
2.5 Overview and ConclusionsReferences; Chapter 3: Israel's Water Policy 1980s-2000s: Advocacy Coalitions, Policy Stalemate, and Policy Change; 3.1 Introduction and Theoretical Considerations; 3.2 The Context of the Research: Water Scarcity in Israel; 3.3 The Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) Approach: Coalitions and Belief Systems; 3.4 Coalitions and Belief Systems in Israel's Water Sector; 3.4.1 The Agro-Water Coalition; 3.4.2 The Rise of the Economists' Coalition in the Water Sector; 3.4.3 The Environmental Coalition
3.4.4 Clash of Coalitions in Israel's Water Sector Leads to Policy Stalemate3.5 The Policy Breakthrough at the Beginning of the 2000s and the Factors Explaining It; 3.5.1 External Perturbations and Policy Change: ACF; 3.5.2 External Perturbations and Policy Change in Israel's Water Sector; 3.5.3 Policy Learning and Policy Brokers: ACF; 3.5.4 Policy Change in Israel's Water Sector; 3.5.5 Policy Learning and Policy Brokers in Israel's Water Sector; 3.6 The Gap Between Decisions and Implementation and the Role of Persistent Core Beliefs; 3.7 Discussion and Concluding Remarks; References
Chapter 4: Water in Agriculture4.1 Consumption and Production; 4.2 The Food-Water Balance; 4.3 Costs, Prices, and Levies; 4.4 Policy; 4.4.1 Allocation to Agriculture; 4.4.2 Allocations to Subsectors Within Agriculture; 4.4.3 Regional Tariffs and Levies; 4.4.4 Subsidies and Cross-Subsidization; 4.5 Looking Ahead; References; Chapter 5: Rehabilitating Israel's Streams and Rivers; 5.1 Introduction; 5.2 A Brief History of Degradation of Israel's Streams; 5.3 A Change in Perspective; 5.3.1 Statutory Amendments: Necessary but Not Sufficient; 5.3.2 Financing Wastewater Treatment
5.3.3 Reflooding the Huleh: Israel's First Major Ecological Rehabilitation Project5.4 The Potential for Genuine Progress; 5.4.1 Legal Recognition of Nature as a Legitimate Water Consumer; 5.4.2 Desalination; 5.4.3 Effluent Standards; 5.4.4 Initiating Stream Protection and Rehabilitation Projects; 5.5 Challenges and the Road Ahead; 5.5.1 Administrative Obstacles; 5.5.2 Financial Obstacles; 5.5.3 Obtaining Necessary Environmental Flows; 5.5.4 Water Quality; 5.5.5 Land Use; 5.5.6 Public Perception and Understanding; 5.5.7 Necessity of Transboundary Efforts; 5.5.8 Climate Change; 5.6 Conclusions
1. Israeli Water Economy: Context and Setting -- 2. The Three Eras of Israeli Water Policies -- 3. Policy Stalemate and Policy Change in Israel's Water Policy 1970-2000s: Advocacy Coalitions and Policy Narratives -- 4. Water in Agriculture -- 5. Water for Nature Policy in Israel -- 6. Wastewater Reuse Policy in Israel -- 7. Water Desalination Policy in Israel Project Choice and Investment Policies: A Critical Look -- 8. Groundwater Management -- 9. Market Based Regulations on Water Users -- 10. Non-Price Mechanisms for Water Conservation in Israel -- 11. Water Quality Assessment and Management of Lake Kinnert: Effects and Feedbacks -- 12. The Dead Sea: Is the Read-Dead Canal a Sustainable Solution -- 13. Impacts of Changes in Regional Rainfall Distribution Patterns on Winter Agriculture in Israel -- 14. A State of Uncertainty With Regard to the Future Global Climate Calls for a New National Plan to Ensure the Safe Supply of Water for Israel -- 15. Basin Management in the Context of Israel and the Palestine Authority -- 16. The International Dimension of Water Policy in Israel -- 17. The Reforms Implemented by the Water Authority -- 18. Concluding Remarks: Policy Options and Research Agenda -- Index.